It is estimated that between and nearly 3. Separatism, resistance to Soviet rule and collaboration with the invading Germans were cited as the official reasons for the deportations. Individual circumstances of those spending time in German-occupied territories were not examined. After the brief Nazi occupation of the Caucasus, the entire population of five of the small highland peoples and the Crimean Tatars—more than a million people in total—were deported without notice or any opportunity to take their possessions.
As a result of Stalin's lack of trust in the loyalty of particular ethnicities, ethnic groups such as the Soviet Koreans , the Volga Germans , the Crimean Tatars , the Chechens and many Poles were forcibly moved out of strategic areas and relocated to places in the central Soviet Union, especially Kazakhstan in Soviet Central Asia.
By some estimates, hundreds of thousands of deportees may have died en route. According to official Soviet estimates, more than 14 million people passed through the gulags from to , with a further 7 to 8 million being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union including the entire nationalities in several cases. In February , Nikita Khrushchev condemned the deportations as a violation of Leninism and reversed most of them, although it was not until that the Tatars, Meskhetians and Volga Germans were allowed to return en masse to their homelands.
Seven decades of Kalashnikov
The deportations had a profound effect on the peoples of the Soviet Union. The memory of the deportations has played a major part in the separatist movements in the Baltic states, Tatarstan and Chechnya even today. At the start of the s, Stalin launched a wave of radical economic policies that completely overhauled the industrial and agricultural face of the Soviet Union.
The NEP had been implemented by Lenin in order to ensure the survival of the socialist state following seven years of war —, World War I from to and the subsequent Civil War and had rebuilt Soviet production to its levels. However, Russia still lagged far behind the West and the NEP was felt by Stalin and the majority of the Communist Party, not only to be compromising communist ideals, but also not delivering sufficient economic performance as well as not creating the envisaged socialist society.
It was therefore felt necessary to increase the pace of industrialisation in order to catch up with the West. Fredric Jameson has said that "Stalinism was [ According to Conquest, the industrial successes were far less than claimed and the Soviet-style industrialisation was "an anti-innovative dead-end".
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And economically, collectivization failed to deliver", further claiming that it decreased harvests instead of increasing them. According to several Western historians,  Stalinist agricultural policies were a key factor in causing the Soviet famine of — , which the Ukrainian government now calls the Holodomor , recognizing it as an act of genocide. Some scholars dispute the intentionality of the famine. Pierre du Bois argues that the cult was elaborately constructed to legitimize his rule. Many deliberate distortions and falsehoods were used.
First world war: 15 legacies still with us today | World news | The Guardian
Photographs were altered and documents were invented. Hoffmann sums up the consensus of scholars:.
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The Stalin cult was a central element of Stalinism, and as such it was one of the most salient features of Soviet rule Many scholars of Stalinism cite the cult as integral to Stalin's power or as evidence of Stalin's megalomania. However, after Stalin's death in his successor Nikita Khrushchev repudiated his policies, condemned Stalin's cult of personality in his Secret Speech to the Twentieth Party Congress in and instituted de-Stalinisation and relative liberalisation within the same political framework.
The Price of the Past: Russia's Struggle With the Legacy of a Militarized Economy
Consequently, some of the world's communist parties who previously adhered to Stalinism abandoned it and to a greater or lesser degree adopted the positions of Khrushchev. The Socialist People's Republic of Albania took the Chinese party's side in the Sino-Soviet split and remained committed at least theoretically to Hoxhaism , its brand of Stalinism, for decades thereafter under the leadership of Enver Hoxha. Despite their initial cooperation against " revisionism ", Hoxha denounced Mao as a revisionist, along with almost every other self-identified communist organization in the world.
This had the effect of isolating Albania from the rest of the world as Hoxha was hostile to both the pro-American and pro-Soviet spheres of influence as well as the Non-Aligned Movement under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito , whom Hoxha had also denounced. Some historians and writers like German Dietrich Schwanitz  draw parallels between Stalinism and the economic policy of Tsar Peter the Great , although Schwanitz in particular views Stalin as "a monstrous reincarnation" of him.
https://ilejmorkoszson.tk Both men wanted Russia to leave the western European states far behind in terms of development. Both largely succeeded, turning Russia into Europe's leading power. Stalinism has been considered by some reviewers as a " red fascism ". Benito Mussolini positively reviewed Stalinism as having transformed Soviet Bolshevism into a Slavic fascism. In writing The Mortal Danger: Misconceptions about Soviet Russia and the Threat to America , Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn argues that the use of the term "Stalinism" is an excuse to hide the inevitable effects of communism as a whole on human liberties.
He writes that the concept of Stalinism was developed after by Western intellectuals so as to be able to keep alive the communist ideal. However, the term "Stalinism" was in use as early as when Leon Trotsky wrote his pamphlet Stalinism and Bolshevism. Kristen R. Ghodsee , ethnographer and Professor of Russian and East European Studies at the University of Pennsylvania , posits that the triumphalist attitudes of Western powers at the end of the Cold War and in particular the fixation with linking all socialist political ideals with the excesses of Stalinism marginalized the left's response to the fusing of democracy with neoliberal ideology, which helped undermine the former.
This allowed the anger and resentment that came with the ravages of neoliberalism i. Writing in , British journalist Seumas Milne said that the impact of the post-Cold War narrative that Stalin and Hitler were twin evils , and therefore Communism is as monstrous as Nazism, "has been to relativise the unique crimes of Nazism, bury those of colonialism and feed the idea that any attempt at radical social change will always lead to suffering, killing and failure.
In modern Russia , public opinion of Stalin and the former Soviet Union has increased in recent years. Trotskyists argue that the Stalinist USSR was not socialist and not communist , but a bureaucratized degenerated workers' state —that is, a non-capitalist state in which exploitation is controlled by a ruling caste which although not owning the means of production and not constituting a social class in its own right, accrued benefits and privileges at the expense of the working class.
Trotsky believed that the Bolshevik revolution needed to be spread all over the globe's working class, the proletarians for world revolution.
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However, after the failure of the revolution in Germany, Stalin reasoned that industrializing and consolidating Bolshevism in Russia would best serve the proletariat in the long run. In the United States, Max Shachtman , at the time one of the principal Trotskyist theorists in the United States, argued that the Soviet Union had evolved from a degenerated worker's state to a new mode of production he called " bureaucratic collectivism ": where orthodox Trotskyists considered the Soviet Union an ally gone astray, Shachtman and his followers argued for the formation of a Third Camp opposed equally to both the Soviet and capitalist blocs.
By the midth century, Shachtman and many of his associates identified as social democrats rather than Trotskyists and some ultimately abandoned socialism altogether. In the United Kingdom, Tony Cliff independently developed a critique of state capitalism that resembled Shachtman's in some respects, but retained a commitment to revolutionary communism.
Maoists criticised Stalin chiefly regarding his view that bourgeois influence within the Soviet Union was primarily a result of external forces to the almost complete exclusion of internal forces and his view that class contradictions ended after the basic construction of socialism. However, they praised Stalin for leading the Soviet Union and the international proletariat, defeating fascism in Germany and his anti-revisionism. Stalin considered the political and economic system under his rule to be Marxism—Leninism , which he considered the only legitimate successor of Marxism and Leninism.
The historiography of Stalin is diverse, with many different aspects of continuity and discontinuity between the regimes of Stalin and Lenin proposed.
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Totalitarian historians such as Richard Pipes tend to see Stalinism as the natural consequence of Leninism, that Stalin "faithfully implemented Lenin's domestic and foreign policy programmes". After researching the biographies in the Soviet archives, he came to the same conclusion that Radzinsky and Kotkin had, i. He lamented that whereas Stalin had long since fallen in the estimation of many Soviet minds the many who agreed with de-Stalinization , "Lenin was the last bastion" in his mind to fall and the fall was the most painful, given the secular apotheosis of Lenin that all Soviet children grew up with.
Proponents of continuity cite a variety of contributory factors as it is argued that it was Lenin, rather than Stalin, whose civil war measures introduced the Red Terror with its hostage taking and internment camps , that it was Lenin who developed the infamous Article 58 and who established the autocratic system within the Communist Party. Opponents of this view include revisionist historians and a number of post-Cold War and otherwise dissident Soviet historians including Roy Medvedev , who argues that although "one could list the various measures carried out by Stalin that were actually a continuation of anti-democratic trends and measures implemented under Lenin [ Lenin's Testament , the document which contained this order, was suppressed after Lenin's death.
In his biography of Trotsky, British historian Isaac Deutscher says that on being faced with the evidence "only the blind and the deaf could be unaware of the contrast between Stalinism and Leninism". The major difficulty is a lack of agreement about what should constitute Stalinism". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the architecture, see Stalinist architecture. For the album by The Stalin, see Stalinism album. Aggravation of class struggle under socialism Anti-revisionism Collectivization Cult of personality Great Break Marxism—Leninism Popular front Self-criticism Socialism in one country Soviet socialist patriotism.
Theoretical works. Related topics. See also: Stalin's cult of personality. Marxist—Leninist state Aggravation of class struggle under socialism Anti-imperialism Anti-revisionism Command economy Collectivization Commanding heights of the economy Cult of personality Democratic centralism Dialectical logic Dialectical materialism Foco Labour aristocracy Marxist—Leninist atheism National liberation One-party state Partiinost' People's democracy Popular front Proletarian internationalism Self-criticism Social fascism Socialist patriotism Soviet Yugoslav Socialist state Theory of the productive forces Third Period Vanguardism.
The idea is to strengthen the relationships by which the smaller militaries in Europe, many of which have specialised in particular missions, could be operationally integrated into the larger ones, which have a broader range of capabilities but are thin in many specific areas. Two essential weaknesses interact. First, many of the member states spend relatively low shares of GDP on defence, an issue that has been raised in visibility by US President Donald Trump.
German social democrats are opposed to increasing German military spending to reach the goal of two percent. That is a major reason for the Framework Nations Project, but the issue, which has been salient since the s, will not be resolved any time soon. It has also continued to sustain the conflict in Eastern Ukraine and to increase its capacity to act elsewhere.
Moreover, it has upped the stakes by increasing the extent and transparency of its influence campaign in Western capitals and by seeking to interfere in several Western elections.